# SQL Functions for Data Analysis

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Functions are a very powerful feature of SQL and can be used to do the following:

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• Perform calculations on data
• Modify individual data items
• Manipulate output for groups of rows
• Format dates and numbers for display
• Convert column data types

–SQL functions sometimes take arguments and always return a value.

Types of SQL function for performing calculations on data are:

• Arithmetic Functions
• Aggregate Functions
• Scalar Functions

SQL functions help to aggregate the data while extracting the data from Data base. There are many functions available in SQL to aggregate the data to analyse it.

### Arithmetic Functions

Arithmetic Functions are used to perform calculations in SQL, the valid symbols are +-*/() .

#### Example:

[code lanuage=”sql”] SELECT EID, (SALARY/12) GROSS_SALARY FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE Department= ‘HR’ ;

### Scalar Functions

SQL scalar functions return a single value, based on the input value. Various Scalar functions include: CHAR, DATE, DAY(S), DECIMAL, DIGITS, FLOAT, HEX, HOUR, INTEGER, LENGTH, MICROSECOND, MINUTE, MONTH, SECOND, SUBSTR, TIME.

#### Example:

[code lanuage=”sql”] SELECT Name, SUBSTRING(Name, 1, 1) AS Initial FROM Employee;

### AGGREGATE FUNCTION

SQL aggregate functions return a single value, calculated from values in a column. Various aggregate functions are:AVG,COUNT,MAX,MIN,SUM.

#### Example:

[code lanuage=”sql”] SELECT AVG(SALARY) AVG-SAL FROM Employee WHERE Department= ‘Research’;

### Frequently Used Functions

SQL has many built-in functions for performing processing on string or numeric data. Following is the list of all useful SQL built-in functions:

• COUNT Function – The SQL COUNT aggregate function is used to count the number of rows in a database table.
• MAX Function – The SQL MAX aggregate function allows us to select the highest (maximum) value for a certain column.
• MIN Function – The SQL MIN aggregate function allows us to select the lowest (minimum) value for a certain column.
• AVG Function – The SQL AVG aggregate function selects the average value for certain table column.
• SUM Function – The SQL SUM aggregate function allows selecting the total for a numeric column.
• SQRT Functions – This is used to generate a square root of a given number.
• RAND Function – This is used to generate a random number using SQL command.
• SQL CONCAT Function – This is used to concatenate any string inside any SQL command.
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